Science, especially the life sciences, is now plagued with misconducts. Affairs show that the line between failed replication and research misconduct may blur. At the same time, they reveal how the scientific community is collectively submitting science to a new kind of test while enunciating new norms delineating the authorized from the forbidden. New watchdogs push forward the concept of post-publication peer reviewing. Our aim will be to trace the emerging contours of misconduct and merit in a destabilized science.